Dental Problems

Lining Materials for the Tooth Restoration

TeethTooth restoration procedure help in the prevention and treatment of caries. These techniques used various materials and equipments to clean the affected area. Then required material is placed into the cavity with precautions. Later, the final placement is done. Thus, while doing this final procedure some lining materials for the tooth restoration is used which are discussed below in this article. Let us examine them.

Lining materials

Traditionally, it has been considered necessary to place a lining material on the floor of a cavity prior to the placement of the final restoration. There have been a number of reasons for their use including sedation of a pre-existing pulpal inflammation as well as prevention of further irritation from sudden temperature change.

The materials used in the past and the reasons for their use of lining materials for the tooth restoration can be listed as follow:

  • Zinc phosphate cement:

    • This was used extensively many years ago on the theory that it was strong enough to accept the load impaired to the dentin by condensation of an amalgam restoration.
    • It was accepted that there was no therapeutic value in this material and in fact it has been shown to be mildly irritating if placed close to the pulp.
    • Its use was continued for a long time because it was expected that an additional layer of this cement would protect other weaker lining materials that became popular from disturbance during condensation of amalgam.
    • It is regarded as out of date at this time.
  • Zinc oxide eugenol:

    • This became popular because the anti-bacterial properties of eugenol were recognized as well as the sedative effectiveness of zinc oxide.
    • It is used as a temporary sedative dressing over a large cavity with an inflamed pulp beneath.
    • It is effective because it provides a seal around the periphery of a cavity simply because bacteria cannot penetrate past the eugenol.
    • Fast setting types were developed to allow this to be used alone as a lining, but as it is relatively weak, it does not offer support for an amalgam restoration placed over the top.
  • Calcium hydroxide:

    • This was introduces as a lining because of its antibacterial properties as well as the theory that the excess calcium ions present in the cement would be available to the pulp and would encourage remineralization within the pulp chamber.
    • The fact that it is very alkaline with a pH-13 ensured the inability of bacteria to thrive in its presence and this help to stabilize conditions on the floor of a cavity.
    • If placed too close to the pulp it will cause necrosis of the adjacent soft tissue, but in the absence of bacteria, the pulp is likely to survive beyond the necrotic area.
    • It will then lay down a calcific barrier a short distance away and it was this which lead to the assumption that it was calcium ions form the lining which promoted the repair.
    • It has recently been shown that calcium ions do not transfer from the mining to the pulp but the conditions developed by its presence allow the pulp to carry out its own repair process.
  • Glass ionomer:

    • This is now the material of choice for lining a cavity because it is an effective barrier to temperature change and also provides an ion exchange adhesion that is the most effective barrier to microleakage of bacteria under a restoration.

The above article discusses briefly about the

lining materials before the final placement of tooth restoration

.

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