Dental Problems

Fluoride Toxicity

Although fluoride helps in the prevention of caries and in the protection tooth structure. But, an increase in concentration of fluoride causes harm to the body. In this article, there is a brief discussion on fluoride toxicity, acute toxicity -symptoms and treatment and chronic toxicity. Read on to know more.

Fluoride-ToxicityFluoride Toxicity:

Accumulated evidence from numerous studies shows that the prolonged use of fluoride at recommended levels does not produce harmful physiological effects in human. Dental fluorosis which has been found to be true in individuals consuming drinking water containing upto 8-0 ppm fluoride, about 8 times the recommended amount. In India many of the states have been identified with some circumscribed areas of high fluoride level and are marked as endemic fluoride belts. These areas having ground water with more than 4.00 ppm.

Dental fluorosis occurs in human being consuming water containing 2.0 mg/lit or more of fluoride particularly during first eight year of life. Skeletal fluorosis can occur if water contains more than 4 ppm fluoride and is consumed regularly.

Acute Toxicity:

Ingestion of an acute fatal dose of fluoride is very rare. The amount of 35 to 70 mgF/kg body weight of soluble fluoride is to be lethal. This is equivalent to 5 to 10 grams of sodium fluoride for an adult weighing 70 kg or about 1.0 to 2.0 gm sodium fluoride for a child of 15 kg. If the fluoride amount is less than this, then it can cause the following:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diffuse abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Excess salivation
  • Thirst
  • Muscle tremors

Treatment for Acute Toxicity:

  • Vomiting should be induced with a syrup of ipeac or digital or mechanical by stimulation of tongue or throat.
  • Subsequent effects should be made to decrease the absorption of fluoride by administering fluoride binding liquids like warm water, calcium hydroxide liquid, antacid containing aluminium or magnesium hydroxide or milk.
  • The affected individual should be hospitalized and stomach should be thoroughly washed with additional lime water.
  • At the sign of a muscle tremor calcium gluconate should be administered intravenously, along with saline to prevent a shock.

Chronic Toxicity:

Chronic toxicity is due to a long term ingetion of a smaller amount of fluoride which usually effect the hard tissue and kidney.

The above article discusses briefly about the fluoride toxicity.

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