Dental Problems

Types of Jaw Surgery

Stem-CellsJaw surgery is generally prescribed to correct the jaw position at rest. There are three types of jaw surgery depending on the type of jawbone damage. Typically, orthognathic surgery or jaw surgery involves the use of appropriate or corrective surgical procedure. The surgery helps in fixing the the facial bone abnormalities, particularly and primarily the teeth and jaws. These abnormalities might include sleep apnea, cleft palates, TMJ (temporomandibular joint) disorders, severe bite problems and airway defects. These medical problems often interferes with the daily routines such as eating, sleeping and talking. Orthognathic surgery or jaw surgery corrects all these problems and helps to improve the condition and overall facial appearance. In this article, there is a brief discussion on the jaw surgery types. Read on to know more about them.

Types of Jaw Surgery

The most common jaw surgery -types include Maxillary Osteotomy or upper jaw, Mandibular Osteotomy or lower jaw and Genioplasty or chin surgery.

  1. Maxillary Osteotomy or Upper Jaw Surgery

    • Patients who have a significantly open bite or apertognathia or a receded upper jaw may benefit from the upper jaw surgery or maxillary osteotomy.
    • In this surgical procedure, the oral surgeon operates and cuts below both the eyes so that the entire upper jaw (including all the upper teeth and the roof of mouth) can move it as one unit. The jaw and teeth are moved slightly forward until both the bottom and upper teeth properly fit together.
    • Once the realignment of the jaw is done, the tiny screws fitted in the jaw hold the jawbone in its position. These tiny screws are much smaller than the bracket used for the braces and they become integrated in the bone structure.
    • Patients suffering with open bite (apertognathia) have difficulty in chewing due to the significant gap (which is usually oval-shaped) between the lower front teeth and upper front teeth.
    • This oval-shaped gap results from an excess bone growth which is seen above the molars only. The normal surface of the jaw is angled instead of being flat, thus the upper teeth does not touch the lower teeth when an individual bites down.
    • To treat the condition, the oral surgeon shave away, extract or cut the excess bone.
  2. Mandibulkar Osteotomy or Lower Jaw Surgery

    • Patients who have significantly receded their lower jaw or retrognathia might be benefit by the lower jaw surgery or mandibular osteotomy.
    • In this surgical procedure, the oral surgeon operates and cuts just behind the molars and then lengthwise down the lower jawbone so that the front of the jaw could move as an one unit.
    • Thus, as a result of mandibular osteotomy, the jaw smoothly slides to its new position.
    • The tiny screws are fitted in the jawbone and they hold the jawbone properly in position until it heals. Thus, patients may have normal jaw movement after the surgery.
  3. Genioplasty or Chin Surgery

    • Patients who are affected with a severely receded lower jawbone which is often accompanied by the chin deficiency, can be treated by the surgical procedure called genioplasty or chin surgery.
    • Typically, oral surgeons can also alter the jawbone and restructure the lower jaw or chin during chin surgery.

The above article discusses about the types of jaw surgery. The primary goal of orthognathic surgery or jaw surgery include enlarging airway passages, achieving a correct bite and providing more aesthetic appearance of the face. Patients suffering with jaw bone and its associated problems may consult a professional. They may diagnose the condition and prescribe the surgery depending on patients need. But, be sure to go for an experienced oral surgeon to avoid complications during and/or after the surgery.

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